The Gospel According to Jesus

Posted by on Aug 1, 2012 in Academic Work, Atonement, The Gospel According to Jesus, The Gospel and the Christian Life, The Gospel and the church, The Gospel and the Ministry, What is the Gospel?, What We Write About

Introduction

Through the work of the Holy Spirit- Jesus alone can open or close one’s eyes to the Christ-Centric nature of His Word. This paper will examine Luke 24:13-35.

Historical-Cultural Context of the Gospel of Luke

The author of the Gospel of Luke-Acts is Luke. The Lukan authorship of Luke-Acts is affirmed by both external evidence (Church tradition) and internal biblical evidence. Church tradition supporting Luke as the author is both early (from the mid-2nd century A.D) and unanimous (it was never doubted till the 19th century). Proponents of the church tradition include the Muratorian canon, the Anti-Marcionate Prologue, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Tertullian.[1] The oldest manuscript of Luke, Bodmer Papyrus XIV, cited as p75 and dated 175-225 A.D. ascribes the book to Luke.[2]

The “we” sections of Acts (16:10-17; 20:5-21:18; 27:1-28:16) demonstrate the author was a companion of Paul and participated in the events described in those sections. The author of Acts was one of Paul’s companions listed in his letters written during those periods (Luke is mentioned in Col. 4:14; 2 Tim.4:11; Philem. 24) and not one of those referred to in the third person in the “we” sections (Acts 20:4-5). It is known that the author was from the second generation of the early church, and was not an “eyewitness” of Jesus ministry (Luke 1:2), and was a Gentile (Col 4:14). All of this confirms the tradition that Luke was the author of the third Gospel. Because Luke traveled with Paul, this Gospel was received as having apostolic endorsement and authority from Paul and as a trustworthy record of the gospel that Paul preached.

Luke-Acts are both addressed to “Theophilus,” and there is no reason to deny that he was a real personal, though attempts to identify him have failed. Luke uses the same description “most excellent” (Luke 1:3) in the book of Acts to describe the Roman governors Felix (Acts 23:26; 24:2) and Festus (Acts 26:25). Theophilus was probably a man of wealth and social standing, and “most excellent” served as a respectful form of address.

Luke’s broader intended audience consisted primarily of Gentile Christians like Theophilus who had already “been taught” (1:4) about Jesus. Luke realized that his recounting of Jesus’ life and message would be useful for evangelism among non-Christians. Luke had several goals in writing his Gospel. Luke’s first goal was to assure his reader of the certainty of what they had been taught to them. This was accomplished by demonstrating his credential as a historian (Luke 1:1-4). He mentions that the material he is sharing is well known (Luke 24:18; Acts 26:26). The fact that the material in Luke comes from eyewitness testimony (Luke 1:2; 24:48; Acts 1:8) further assures his readers that what they were taught is certain. Luke also seeks to assure his readers by demonstrating that the vents recorded in Luke-Acts were the fulfillment of ancient prophecy (Luke 1:1; 3:4-6; 4:17-21; 7:22-23) and the fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecies (9:22, 44; 11:29-30; 13:32-34; 17:25; 18:31-33).

Secondly, Luke’s purpose was to help his readers understand how Israel’s rejection of Jesus and the Gentiles’ entrance into the kingdom of God are in accord with the divine plan. Luke here emphasizes that Christianity is not a new religion but rather the fulfillment and present-day expression of the religion of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Thirdly Luke’s purpose is to clarify for his readers Jesus’ teaching concerning the end times by showing that Jesus did not teach that the paraousia (return of Christ) would come immediately but that there would be a period between his resurrection and his return (9:27; 19:11; 21:20-24; 22:69; Acts 1:6-9). Nevertheless, Jesus would return (Luke 3:9-17; 12:38-48; 18:8; 21:32) in bodily form (Acts 1:11), and believers should live in watchful expectation (Luke 21:34-36). Finally, Luke’s purpose is to emphasize that his readers need not fear Rome. Luke hints at this theme by highlighting Herod’s and Pilate’s desire to release Jesus and the Roman centurion’s recognition of his innocence. Luke also records (in Acts) several occasions where Roman authorities came to Paul’s rescue. When Roman officials did persecute, Luke explains that it was due to error and that the persecution ceased immediately when the error was discovered (Acts 16:22-39).

Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke to give assurance to his readers about who Jesus is and what Jesus has done in His death, burial and resurrection (Luke 1:4).  The Gospel of Luke answers two questions, “Who is Jesus?” which consumes chapters 1-9 of Luke. The second question is, “What has Jesus done?” which takes up chapters 10-24. The Gospel can be divided into five sections. The first section is the introduction to Jesus ministry, which begins at Luke 1:1 and ends at Luke 4:14. The second section is about ministry in and around Galilee beginning at Luke 4:14 and ending at Luke 9:50. The third section is Jesus’ teaching “en route” to Jerusalem (9:51-18:34). The fourth section is Jesus in Judea: Ministry near and in Jerusalem beginning in Luke 18:35 and ending in Luke 21:38. The final section is the climax of Jesus’ life beginning in Luke 22:1 and ending in Luke 24:53.

No other Gospel encompasses such as broad range of subgenres as Luke: annunciation stories, birth narratives, lyric praise psalms, Christmas carols, prophecies, genealogies, preparation stories, temptation stories, calling stories, recognition stories, conflict stories, encounter stories, miracle stories, pronouncement stories, parables, beatitudes, sermons, proverbs, passion stories, trial narratives, and resurrection accounts. Stylistically Luke is known for his vivid descriptive details and ability to make scenes come alive in the imagination.

The Gospel of Luke finds its unity in the person of Jesus and in his mission to seek and save the lost. From the first announcement of his coming to his ascension into heaven, Jesus is at the center of everything: the songs are for his praise, the miracles are by his power, the teaching is from his wisdom, the conflict is over his claims, and the cross is that which only he could bear. Luke gives his account further literary unity by intertwining the stories of Jesus and John the Baptist; by beginning and ending his story at the temple; by presenting the life of Jesus as a journey towards Jerusalem; and by following the progress of the disciples as they learn to count the cost of discipleship. The unity of the Gospel of Luke is expressed in Jesus’ pronouncement to Zacchaeus: “The Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost” (Luke 19:10).

Literary Context of Luke 24:13-35

The story of Jesus appearance on the road to Emmaus is the first of three resurrection appearances reported in Luke and is unique to Luke’s Gospel. The second, the appearance to Peter, is also reported within this account (Luke 24:34). The story is one of the longest in Luke and consists of four parts. The first part involves Jesus’ encounter with the two disciples traveling from Jerusalem to Emmaus (Luke 24:13-16). The second (Luke 24:17-27) concerns 1) the ensuing conversation in which one disciple, Cleopas, explains to the stranger about Jesus’ death at the hands of the Jewish leadership; 2) the women’s report concerning the empty tomb, which had been confirmed by others; and 3) the report of the angelic visit to the women. At this point the stranger explains from the Scriptures the necessity of the Messiah’s death and resurrection. The third part tells of the two disciples inviting the stranger to stay at their home and the subsequent meal. When the stranger (as in the Lord’s Supper) takes bread, blessed it, breaks it, and begins to distribute it, their eyes are opened. They recognize that the stranger is Jesus, and his teaching concerning the divine necessity of the passion are confirmed. Jesus then disappears (Luke 24:28-32).  The final part involves the return of the two disciples to Jerusalem, where they are informed that the Lord has risen and appeared to Simon (Luke 24:33-35). In turn they share their experience of the risen Christ and how he has revealed to them in the breaking of the bread.

The immediate context of Luke 24:13-35 fits within the broader context of Luke 24, which is about the Resurrection of Jesus. Luke’s Gospel began in the Temple (Luke 1:5-23) and, after Jesus has risen from the dead, it will conclude in the temple as well (Luke 24:52-53). After Luke 24:13-35 Luke teaches how Jesus appears to His Disciples and then gives the Ascension of Jesus.

Passage Relation of Luke 24:13-35

The NIV, ESV and NASB divide Luke 24 into four sections. Luke 24:1-12, Luke 24:13-35, Luke 25:36-49 and Luke 24:50-53. The KJV and ASV have no divisions for Luke 24. NKJV has six divisions. Luke 24:12-, 13-27, 28-35, 36-42, 43-49, and 50-53. Vs.13-14- Jesus meets the disciples on the road to Emmaus. Vs. 15-24- Cleopas explains what happened to Jesus to Jesus. Vs. 25-27- Jesus interprets Scripture through Himself. Vs. 28-31- The Disciples eyes are opened to Jesus when He gave them communion. Vs. 32-35- The disciples discuss meeting Jesus. Luke 24:1-53 describes the resurrection of Jesus. Luke began in the temple (Luke 1:5-21) and after Jesus has risen from the dead, it will conclude in the temple as well (Luke 24:52-53).

Detailed Explanation of Luke 24-13-35

Explanation of Luke 24:13-14

Luke 24:13-14. That very day in Luke 24:13 is the first day of the week, Sunday (Luke 24:1). One of the two people is unarmed while the other is named Cleopas (Luke 24:18). They were going to Emmaus. The location of Emmaus is uncertain but it was in Judea seven miles from Jerusalem. The identification of Emmaus with Anwas, more than thirty kilometers (about nineteen miles) WNW of Jerusalem is highly improbably, since it is hard to imagine that the two men covered twice that distance on foot that afternoon-evening.[3] Dr. Stein says that a stadion is about 607 feet; therefore, the distance is about 6.8 miles.[4] The significance of Emmaus is twofold as Dr. Bock points out. First, it indicates an appearance in the Jerusalem area, which is Luke’s geographic concern, and secondly it reflects the retention of historical detail. [5]

Explanation of Luke 24:15-24

Luke 24:15-16. Suddenly footsteps were heard behind those of Jesus. He was catching up with them and presently as walking alongside of them. The two men here were being kept from recognizing Jesus (Matthew 28:17; John 20:14; 21:4). The use of the articular infitive (tou me epignonai, not to recognize) is epexegetical and specifies that they were kept from knowing.[6] The construction of this verse places the responsibility outside of the disciples and Satan is entirely absent from the resurrection account. The point here is that God had things to teach the disciples. This veil would be lifted in Luke 24:31. Dr. Ryken notes that it is not the physical sight of Jesus that brings the assurance of salvation, but believing in Jesus by seeing him in the gospel, whether or not we have ever walked with him on the road to Emmaus.[7] The purpose of this is to demonstrate the reality of Jesus’ bodily resurrection. Luke uses dramatic flair so the reader knows more about the situation than those who experienced it. Part of the drama that builds in this story is how they will realize who their discussion partner is.

Luke 24:17. The unrecognized intruder now asked them a question. During His public ministry Jesus often used this method (Luke 6:3, 9; 8:30; 9:18; 18:40, 41; 20:3, 4, 41-44, 22:35). Jesus asked this question to arouse interest so that he would have an opportunity to explain what those questioned needed to know. The men were not expecting this question so it surprised them- looking sad as the last few days had filled their hearts and minds with sorrow and a feeling of disappointment.

Luke 27:18. The man who answered was Cleopas but there is no reason to identify him with the Clopas of John 19:25. His answer was in the form of a counter-question. He wanted to know whether was the only stranger in, or visitor to, Jerusalem who had managed to remain completely uninformed about matters that were on everybody’s lips.

Luke 24:19-20. Prophet is a correct but inadequate designation for Christ (7:16). Mighty in deed and word as show in his casting out of demons, performing healing and nature miracles, his divine authority to forgive sins, and his extensive teaching with divine authority. Before God and all the people (24:19) stands in contrast with chief priests and rulers (v.20). What Judas did in delivering Jesus over to the chief priests, they in turn did by delivering him over to Pilate.

Luke 24:21-24. But we had hoped contrasts the people’s view of Jesus with that of the

religious leadership. The two men were thinking of Peter and John, for they were the ones who had gone to the tomb and found everything exactly as the women had reported, but had not yet seen the Risen Savior. Cleopas and his companion are bewildered and don’t know what to make of it. Some of those went to the tomb assumes that, after Peter’s visit other disciples went (John 20:2-10).

Michael Wilcock calls this speech “The Gospel according to Cleopas”[8] Cleopas started with the life of Jesus- his earthly ministry. Cleopas rightly noted that Jesus was a man- a real flesh and blood human being. Cleopas also called him the “prophet-man”. Next the two disciples told about the tragic death of Jesus (Luke 24:20). They said it was the fault of the chief priest and rulers of Israel who set Jesus to die. The two disciples even noted in Luke 24:21 that this was the third day. The phrase “third day” is a signal of the resurrection, reminiscent of the prophecy that on the third ay Jesus would rise again. For the Emmaus disciples it seems to have meant that the situation was beyond any earthly hope. They were not thinking in terms of a resurrection so when the third day came, they thought Jesus was as dead as he could be. Cleopas and his friend were unsure about the empty tomb. These two disciples had not yet seen Jesus.

The Gospel according to Cleopas is no gospel at all. The word “gospel” means good news but there is no good news unless Jesus has risen from the grave. Cleopas and his friend were sad because they did not know if Jesus was alive. Since they did not know the truth of the resurrection they did not know that their sins were forgiven through the cross or that the empty tomb was God’s guarantee of eternal life. Without the resurrection of Christ there is no Gospel at all. The Gospel is the crucifixion plus the resurrection, which equals forgiveness for our sins and everlasting joy in the presence of God.

 

 

Explanation of Luke 24:25-27

Luke 24:25-26. O foolish ones is actually, “O foolish men,” because of the Greek does not specify whether these were two men or a man and a woman walking together. Luke 24:26. Was it not necessary refers to the fact that the entire Old Testament had shown how God brought his chosen leaders first through suffering and then to glory. Therefore the Messiah himself, in fulfillment of this extensive pattern and in fulfillment of many prophecies would also first suffer before entering into his glory (Luke 9:22; 24:44). This glory, foreshadowed in Luke 9:32, comes at his resurrection and then more fully at his ascension into heaven (Luke 22:69; Acts 2:33; 7:55; 22:6-11; Phil. 2:-811; Heb. 1:3).

Luke 24:27. The root idea of explained is the word from which we derive the word hermeneutics, the science of Bible interpretation.[9] Moses and the Prophets refers to the entire Old Testament, also summarized as all the Scriptures. Jesus explained to them how not only the explicit prophecies about the Messiah but also the historical patterns of God’s activity again and again throughout the Old Testament looked forward to Jesus himself. In the inscrutable wisdom of divine providence, the substance of Christ’s exposition of the Old Testament messianic prophecies was not recorded. But the gift of what He expounded would have undoubtedly include an explanation of the Old Testament sacrificial system which was full of types and symbols that spoke of His sufferings and death. He also would have pointed them to the major prophetic passages which spoke of the crucifixion such as Pss. 16:9-11; 22; 69; Is. 52:14-53:12; Zech. 12:10; 13:7. He would have pointed out the true meaning of Genesis 3:15; Numbers 21:6-9; Ps. 16:10; Jer. 23:5-6; Dan. 9:26- and a host of other key messianic prophecies particularly those that spoke of His death and resurrection. There are four lines which running through the Old Testament from beginning to end, converge at Bethlehem and Calvary: The historical, typological, psychological and prophetical.[10] It is reason then to believe that the Lord in interpreting in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself, showed how the Old Testament in various ways, pointed to Himself (Acts 10:43).

All of these truths described above find their fulfillment in the saving work of Jesus Christ.  The key to understanding the Bible is Jesus Christ.[11] He is the son of the woman who was bruised on the cross before crushing Satan’s head. He is the Lamb who offered his blood for our sins (John 1:36) and was lifted up for our salvation (John 3:14-15). He is the covenant-maker who was cursed for all our covenant breaking and who sprinkled his redeeming blood on the altar of the Cross (Gal. 3:13). If we turn to Isaiah, the Scriptures says that the Savior will be wounded for our iniquities and pierced for our transgressions (Isa. 53:5). If we turn to Jeremiah, the Scripture s say that he will be mocked and abused (Jer. 20:7-10). If we turn to Zechariah, the Scriptures say that he will make atonement for the whole land in a single day (Zec. 3:9). These prophecies also find their fulfillment in the sufferings and death of Jesus Christ, who was wounded, pierced, and abused in offering himself as an atoning sacrifice for our sins. All of this was only the beginning. Jesus continued his Bible exposition by using all the principles of his Christ-centered, gospel-driven interpretation to explain all that was said “in all the Scriptures concerning himself” (Luke 24:27). Jesus is not just here or there in this prediction or prophecy: he is everywhere in the Old Testament. He is the ark of the covenant and the blood on the mercy seat. He is the light on the golden lampstand and the bread of life. He is the prophet who preaches like Moses the priest who prays like Aaron, and the king after David’s heart.

The preaching Jesus did here was biblical: it was based on the law and the prophets. His preaching was through: he wanted his friends to know everything the prophets had spoken. His preaching was Christ-centered, for he was preaching about himself. It was also gospel-centered including both the crucifixion and the resurrection: Jesus proclaimed the agonies of the cross and the glories of the empty tomb. His preaching was persuasive: Jesus argued for the absolute necessity of doing his saving work the way that he did it- it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and then to be glorified.

Explanation of Luke 24:28-31

Luke 24:28-29. As the three neared Emmaus Jesus acted as if he would go farther. Yet, the two pressed Jesus to stay with him. Traveling late in the night in the ancient world involved a lot of danger facing robbers, and obstacles in the path. The main reason why the two men urged Jesus to stay with him was that they were so impressed with him. At the moment when the Savior had first joined them, they were not at all pleased to have this stranger intrude on them. But by now, for a very understandable reason they could not imagine Jesus leaving them. Jesus allowed himself to be persuaded, entering their home, and the two honored their guest by asking him to perform the duties of a host.

Luke 24:30. For other resurrection appearances with eating (Luke 24:41-43; John 21:9-15; Acts 10:41). He took the bread and blessed and broke it and gave it to them. There is a striking similarity between this, the Last Supper (Luke 22:19), and the feeding of the five thousand (Luke 9:16). Luke 24:31 Their eyes were opened when Jesus broke the bread which says they recognized him as the crucified one who died for the redemption of Israel (Luke 24:21). Jesus then vanished (Luke 24:36; John 20:19; 26). These people on the road had been sovereignly kept from recognizing Jesus up to this point (Luke 24:16_. His resurrection body was glorified, and altered from its previous appearance and this surely explains why even Mary did not recognize him (John 20:14-16). Jesus resurrection body though real and tangible (John 20:27) and even capable of ingesting earthly food (John 20:42-43) possessed certain properties that indicate it was glorified, altered in a mysterious way (1 Cor. 15:35-54; Phil. 3:21). Christ could appear and disappear bodily as seen in this text. His body could pass through h solid objects such as grave clothes (Luke 24:12), or the walls and doors of a closed room (John 20:19, 26). He could apparently travel great distances in a moment, for by the time these disciples returned to Jerusalem, Christ had already appeared to Peter (Luke 24:34). The fact that Jesus ascended into heaven bodily demonstrated that His resurrection body was already fit for heaven. Yet it was His body, the same one that was missing from the tomb, even retaining identifying features such as the nail-wounds (John 20:25-27). He was no ghost or phantom.

Explanation of Luke 24:32-35

Luke 24:32. Did not our hearts burn within us.  Even before the two disciples recognized Jesus, the fact that he opened (interpreted) the Scriptures (Luke 24:27; Acts 17:2-3) gave them hope and began convincing them of the resurrection. The phrase “our hearts burned within us” is an expression denoting the deep interest and pleasure which they had felt in his discourage before they knew who he was. They now recalled his instruction; they remembered how his words reached the heart as he spoke to them; how convincingly he had showed them that the Messiah ought to suffer, and how, while he talked to them of the Christ that they so much loved, their hearts glowed with intense love.[12] Luke 24:34-35. After being told by the Eleven that the Lord has risen indeed and has appeared to Simon (Mark 16:7; 1 Cor. 15:5), the two tell how they met the Lord who was known in the breaking of the bread which meant they understood that the Risen one was also the one who poured out his life for them.

Application

The Gospel is Christ’s death, burial and resurrection. When this confused or muffled as, it was by Cleopas and his friend it had disastrous consequences for Churches locally, globally and for Christians individually. Dr. Goldsworthy points out that the meaning of Scriptures is unlocked by the death and resurrection of Christ.[13] Luke 24:13-35 points to the need for Christian leaders and believers to understand the Christ-centric nature of Scripture in order to properly interpret the Bible. Jesus by explaining the Scriptures was engaging in the task of hermeneutics.

The words “gospel-centered” and “Christ-centered” have become buzzwords in Reformed and evangelical circles much the same way that the emergent church became popular many years go. Words such as “Gospel-centered” and “Christ-Centered” are biblical and therefore should be defined and explained biblically. It is far too common in evangelical circles today to attach a “label” to such buzzwords and then the meaning is lost. The Christ-Centered nature of the Bible should never be assumed but explained and upheld by every evangelical believer. The phrase “Gospel-Centered” should never be treated lightly because the death, burial and resurrection of Christ form the basis for the Gospel. Christ-Centered means just hat keeping Christ at the center of the explanation of the passage. Being Christ-Centered does not mean forcing a biblical text into saying “this is about Christ” but explaining how it relates to Christ. Being “Gospel-Centered” like being “Christ-Centered” does not mean forcing the biblical text to teach the Gospel. Being “Gospel-Centered” means explaining how the Gospel finds its fulfillment in a particular text. When biblical teaching is treated as common or just as another phrase the result is that the meaning of biblical phrases is depleted for a meaning other than what the Bible teaches.

The goal for every Christian should be to live lives that are Christ-Centered that is lives that not only profess in words but also in actions that Christ the Lord is being honored as Lord in their hearts. Every Christian should live Gospel-Centered lives- lives that reflect the truth of the Gospel they profess with their words. In other words- Christ-Centered and Gospel-Centered are words that should lead the individual Christian, and Churches (locally and globally) not just to mere proclamation but equally to action. The way Christians treat the poor, care for their cities, treat orphans and widows is a good indication whether the Christian of the Church takes seriously the Gospel one professes. The Gospel is not just words one professes. The Gospel is words one professes accompanied by action that demonstrates a heart- transformation has been wrought by the Holy Spirit resulting in the display of the fruits of the Spirit, godliness and service to the King of Kings, for His glory alone.

Conclusion

Through the work of the Holy Spirit- Jesus alone can open or close one’s eyes to the Christ-Centric nature of His Word. The Gospel according to Jesus is His death, burial, and resurrection. The Gospel Jesus explained to the disciples walking on the road of Emmaus is the same Gospel today with the same power to save. The Gospel is the power of God for the salvation of man (Romans 1:16). The goal of the Gospel is much more than reciting words and taking action for Christ. The Gospel is the message Jesus explained as the centerpiece of the Bible. The Gospel then is more than just words and actions- the Gospel is the message God gave His people to believe, confess, and live by.

The Gospel according to Jesus is under attack today in the academy by men and women who seek to redefine the biblical teaching on justification. The Gospel is under attack by a liberal media who want Christians to redefine the exclusiveness of Jesus to mean the opposite of people perishing and going to hell. The Gospel according to Jesus is under attack by liberal scholars who seek to raise doubt and question the unity of the Bible itself. The Gospel according to Jesus is Christ’s death, burial, and resurrection.

The message of the Gospel has sustained the Church locally and globally for two-thousand and ten years. The Gospel of Christ continues to go forward with great speed all around the world because it alone is the means God is using to create a people who once were not His people. The Gospel alone contains the power of God to sanctify people for God’s glory and make them useful for His service. The Gospel according to Jesus will continue to go forward because it is the means God uses to justify and sanctify people for His own glory so that His Church, and His Kingdom will go forward till the day Jesus Christ returns for His people. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Bock, Darrel, Luke 9:51-24:53(Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009) 1908-1909.

Bloomberg, Craig, Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey (Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 1997), 162.

ESV Bible (Illinois, Crossway, 2002).

Fitmyer, Joseph, The Gospel According to Luke- IX, 2nd Edition (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 35-36.

Goldsworthy, Graeme, Preaching the Whole Bible as Christian Scripture (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000), 54.

Hendrickson, William, Luke (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1978), 1060, 1065.

Marshall, I., The Gospel of Luke (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1978), p. 897.

Ryle, J.C., Luke (Illinois, Crossway, 1997).

Ryken, Philip Graham, Luke Volume 2: Chapters 13-24 Reformed Expository Commentary (New Jersey: P & R, 2009), 644.

Stein, Robert, The New American Commentary An Exegetical and theological exposition of Holy Scripture: Luke (Nashville, Broadman & Holman, 1992), 601.

Wilcock, Michael, The Message of Luke, The Bible Speaks Today (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1979), 208.


[1] Craig Bloomberg, Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey(Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 1997), 162.

[2] Joseph Fitmyer, The Gospel According to Luke- IX, 2nd Edition (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 35-36.

[3] William Hendrickson, Luke (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1978), 1060.

[4] Robert Stein, The New American Commentary An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture: Luke(Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 1992),  601.

[5] Darrel Bock, Luke 9:51-24:53(Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009) 1908-1909.

[6] Ibid, 1909.

[7] Philip Graham Ryken, Reformed Expository Commentary: Luke Volume 2: Chapters 13-24 (New Jersey: P&R, 2009), 644.

[8] Michael Wilcock, The Message of Luke, The Bible Speaks Today (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1979), 208.

[9] I. Marshall, The Gospel of Luke (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1978), p. 897.

[10] William Hendrickson, Luke (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1978), 1065.

[11] J.C. Ryle, Luke (Illinois, Crossway, 1997), 311.

[12] William Hendrickson, Luke (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1978), 1017.

[13] Grame Goldsworthy, Preaching the Whole Bible as Christian Scripture (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000), 54.

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